Brain Drain: Causes, Consequences and Recommendations Essay outline




  1. Introduction:

  2. Causes of brain Drain:

    1. Push Factors:
      1. Low wages
      2. Discrimination in recruitments and promotions
      3. Social unrest
      4. Political instability
      5. Conflicts and wars
      6. Lack of research facilities including support staff; meagerness of research funds; lack of professional apparatus and tools
      7. Lack of freedom and autonomy
      8. Deteriorating standard of educational system
  1. Pull Factors:
    1. Opportunity for upward vertical mobility
    2. Sophisticated standard of living
    3. Employment opportunity
    4. Great income and higher wages
    5. Healthier working conditions; employment proficient development
    6. Modern educational schemes
    7. Political stability
    8. Meritocracy and transparency
    9. Appreciation and rewards on government level
  1. Why academic intellectuals leave their country of origin:

    1. Poor libraries and apparatus for research.
    2. Political instability and harassment, human right manipulation, wars
    3. Non-functioning democracy and autocratic governments crush intellectuals.
    4. Lack of self-determination and social equivalence
    5. Lack of quality education for children
    6. Lack of career opportunities.
  2. Why student go Abroad:

    1. Poor worth of national education from the Montessori level to post graduate level.
    2. Unavailability of scholarships or financial assistance for the brilliant students.
    3. Miserable infrastructure of schools colleges and universities for higher studies students
  3. Why students do not return:

    1. Limited employment opportunities desist students to come back to the homeland.
    2. Poor living conditions, insufficient earning and job satisfaction in developed countries
    3. Getting married to a host country’s citizen to get citizenship.
  4. Effects of Brain Drain in Developing countries:

    1. Negative Effects
      1. Lack of industrial growth and innovation
      2. Economic instability leads to increase rate of unemployment and inflation
      3. Political instability and religious persecution
      4. Crumbling poor and middle class
      5. Due to pitiable environment, lack of skilled people
      6. Universities unable to run and achieve development goals
      7. Doctors, engineers, scientists and students leave for the industrialized world
      8. Loses brain which are necessary for trade and industrial development
  1. Positive effects:

    1. Brain Circulation equalizes brain drain
    2. Transnational corporation and increase in foreign direct investment
    3. When possibility of migration is real; level of education in sending countries rises.
    4. Amalgamation in global economy
  1. Recommendation for the developing countries

    1. Reformation of the national education
      1. Reformation of the infrastructure of schools, colleges and universities
      2. Higher budget allocation for the higher education
      3. Proper use of funds for the education projects
      4. Sufficient facilities for research projects in universities and establishment of research cells
      5. Encourage the distant learning and education for all
      6. Encourage human rights and enforce the regulation
      7. Maintain law and order situation
      8. Strengthen anti-corruption agencies to eliminate corruption
      9. Proper allocation of budget to the science and technology organizations
      10. Provide essential health services in order to control infectious diseases.
      11. Facilitate the education system through training, research and education
      12. State should reduce the rooted conflict to maintain peace
      13. Democratic government is the best solution for the cancerous problems of brain drain
      14. Empower judicial system
      15. Efficient solution of energy crises should be dealt prudently
      16. Meritocracy and transparency should be promoted
      17. Efficient management of resources
      18. Role of government should be the key role to avoid the issue of human capital.
  1. Conclusion

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