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Judiciary

Estoppel

ESTOPPEL: Definition: According to Art 114 of Q.S.O 1984. Estoppel is “When one person has, by his declaration, act or omission, intentionally caused or permitted another person to believe a thing to be true and to act upon such…

Judicial Reforms in Pakistan

Judicial Reforms Pakistan is going through the most tumultuous phase of its history. The country is facing existential threat not only from “without” but also from “within”. Besides security threat, the political system is collapsing as…

Declaratory Decree under Specific Relief Act

Declaratory Decree: Chapter six of the Specific Relief Act 1877 deals with the declaratory decree. Section 42 provides that “any person entitled to any legal character, or to any right as to any property, may institute a suit against any…

Discovery of Person Wrongfully Confined

Wrongful Confinement Defined: Wrongful confinement means any confinement which is against the law. Generally speaking wrongful confinement means putting any person in any place without lawful authority. Under section 340 PPC wrongful…

Duress or Coercion in Contract

Definition: Section 15 of the Contract act, defines Coercion as “Coercion is committing or threatening to commit any act forbidden by Pakistan Penal Code or unlawful detaining or threatening to detain any property, to the prejudice of…

Remedies for Breach of Contract

Remedies for breach of contract: Section 73 of the contract Act deals with the consequences of a breach of contract and on the basis of which compensation for any loss or damage is to be assessed by providing that when a contract has been…

Discharge of Contract by Frustration

Introduction: The second para of section 56 Contract Act 1872 states that “A contract to do an act which after the contract is made becomes impossible, or, by reason of some event which the promisor could not prevent, becomes unlawful,…

Kinds of Qatl and their Punishment

Qatl-i-Amd: Qatl-i-Amd has been defined in S. 300 Pakistan Penal Code. It provides that whoever, with the intention of causing death or with the intention of causing bodily injury to a person, by doing an act which in the ordinary course…