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Optionals Group IV

Muslim Conquest of Egypt

Conquest of Egypt 640-641 A.D/19-20 A.H: Byzantine Province. Under pharaohs, it was a proud and independent country. Fertile Nile Delta. Became granary of Rome, then of Constantinople, and then of Madinah under Pious Caliphs.…

Conquest of Syria and Palestine

CONQUESTS OF SYRIA & PALESTINE 634-638 A.D: Situation is Syria on Umar’s Accession: Rapid advancement towards Syria. Emperor Heraclius had fled from Emessa to Antioch in Northern Syria, which became his second capital.…

Islamic Ideology and its Characteristics

ISLAMIC IDEOLOGY AND ITS CHARACTERISTICS: What is An Ideology: Ideology is a philosophical term meaning Science of Ideas. Ideas mean a basic concept, and the basic concept on which any system is built constitutes its ideology. Islamic…

Revenue Administration of the Umayyads

Revenue Administration of the Umayyads: Its Distinctive Features: Umayyads had more sources of revenue than that of orthodox caliphs. Zakat Usher Khums (1/5th share of war spoil to state), Kharaj (land tax to…