Khilafat Movement (1919-1924)
- Khilafat (The Institution)
- Attachment of Indian Muslim to Khilafat.
Bengal-coin-Name of Calaiph.
Friday Khutba (Mughal)
- Origin of the Movement.
- Its world war and Turkey’s alliance wide Germany.
- Threat to Ottoman Empire.
- Promises of Britain.
- Violation of promises.
- Rowlatt Act,
- Black law
- has all rights to arrest and trial.
- Jallianwalla Bagh Massacre and Hindu Muslim unity.
- Khilafat Committee.
- Congress and Muslims combined
- All India Khilafat committee.
- Muslim delegation to Europe.
- Hijrat movement.
- Dabul-Harab (Fatwa)
- Non co-operation movement.
- Fatwa Tark-e-Mawalat.
- School aid.
- A.O admin clash.
- Jamia Millia
- Hindu university and Gandhi
- Boycott of education by Muslim
- Boycott of governmental job.
- Jobs vacated occupied by Hindus.
- Hindu Muslims Unity.
- Recognizing vedas.
- Gandhi would have been a prophet.
- Tilak and ceremonies.
- Fatwa on cow slaughter.
- Moplah Uprising.
- Arab settlers in south India Malabar.
- 144 implementation.
- Attacks by Muslims on Hindus and police.
- Khilafat session in Karachi.
- Boycott military.
- Trial of molana M. Ali.
- Lack of leadership.
- Incident of chora chori.
- 22 policemen bunt by Gahethi men.
- Gandhi immediately called of non-cooperation movement.
- Abolition of khilafat (1924)
- Mustafa kamalattaturk
- Gandhis role.
- In favour
- A conspiracy against Muslim cause.
- Results of khilafat movement.
- Causes of failure
The institution of Khilafat has been coeval with Islam. The devotion of Muslims of India to the khalifa was one of the basic features of the political life, earlier proved during the Balkans wars and First World War. Certain developments beyond India were disturbing the Muslims of subcontinent. The Ottoman Empire was declining in the beginning of 20th century and other European parts of Turkey.
In 1913, Balkan states revolted against Turkey. The Indian Muslims psychologically were intensely attached with Turkey because it was the center of khilafat, although they did not own any political allegiance to khalifa yet they considered him as the relaying force for the Muslims unity.
Origin of Movement:
In First World War Turkey had chosen to fight against allied powers. The British govt. after declaring war against Turkey promised Indian Muslims that sanctity of Holy Places will be respected. Status of caliphate would be respected and Ottoman Empire would be given back its territories at the end of war.
Violation of Promises:
After the end of war treaty of Serves was concluded whose harsh terms made it clear that the victorious allies were determined to destroy the Ottoman Empire. Treaty of Serves was signed to divide its parts among the victors. To Indian Muslims treaty appeared to be a deliberate attempt to exterminate the political power of Islam by the Christian West.
Rowlott Act, Jallianwala Tragedy and Hindu Muslim
A security Act in 1919 known as Rowlatt Act was passed which gave arbitrary powers of arrest and trial to the govt. This Act aroused wide spread agitation. A number of protest meetings were held. One such meeting was held in Jallian walla Bagh, Amritsar was drowned in blood by Gen. Dyer who opened fire without warning. Thus, he antagonized both Hindus and Muslims. British helped both the communities come closer. The Hindu and Muslims now decided to forge ahead unitedly and take steps against the government.
Formation of Khilafat Committee:
All India khilafat committee was formed with its head quarters at Bombay and Branches in all the provinces in 1919 to launch a country wide agitation. First session of khilafat conference was held in Delhi in 1919 and Muslims were asked not to participate in victory celebration, to boycott British goods and start a non-co-operation movement. Gandhi was also present in the session and offered Hindu co-operation with regard to khilafat institution.
In December, 1919 both the Congress and the khilafat committee held their meeting, and they decided that a delegation from India should immediately proceed to England and other European countries to present the demands. Hence Moulana Muhammad Ali Jouhar led a delegation to Europe in March 1929 to muster support for khilafat cause and to apprise British Govt. of Muslim grievances and resentment. The delegates met the British P.M Lloyed George and presented following demands.
The charter of the delegation contained following demands.
- That the Sultan of Turkey as the Caliph of the Muslims should be kept as the sovereign ruler of an independent state comprising of Constantinople Thrace, Anatolia and Armenia.
- The area of Hijaz, Syria, Palestine and Iraq which had the holy places of Islam be protected from the rule of non-Muslims.
- Spade work should be initiated to pave way for the independence of India, which it was impossible to protect the Islamic countries.
As British Prime Minister Lloyd George was an implacable enemy of Turks the delegation returned empty handed.
This unsuccessful tour of Europe Convinced Molana Muhammad Ali Johar and Syed Suleman Nadvi that freedom of India was imperative to secure the freedom of Islam. They also realized that it would amount to self-deception to rely on any British party whether it was question of khilafat or freedom of India.
The leaders of the khilafat movement now changed strategy and launched a non-cooperation movement. Mutiny of Jamiat-ul-ulema-i-hind on 6, September 1920 issued Fatwa of Tark-e-Mawalat. This fatwa comprised the following injunctions.
- Disassociation from all executive and legislative councils.
- Boycott of courts.
- Boycott of all such government schools and colleges which received government grants.
- Relinquishing of all honorary offices and Magistracy.
- Renouncing government titles.
- Resigning government posts.
As a result of this fatwa, hundreds of thousands people returned the titles, stopped sending their children to government schools. Many young man left high government position and accepted petty private jobs in Calcutta.
All this movement gave benefit to Hindus who occupied their jobs and positions.
Dissenting decision of some scholars:
The Muslim leaders pressurized M.A.O college administration, not to accept government grants. But M.A.O administration refused. Due to this M. Ali Johar and his friends parted way from M.A.O College and decided to set up an independent institution Jamia Millia.
Though very short, it was first and last time when the Hindu Muslim unity was at its peak. The Muslims did everything they could to cultivate the Hindus and win their hearts.
Maulana Abu-al-Kalam and Maulana Abdul Bari issued Fatwa that India was a Dar-al-Harb where the religion of Muslim is not safe. They urged Muslims to migrate to a safe place for safety of their religion.
With issuance of this fatwa nearly 18000 Muslims left home and migrated to Afghanistan as protest against British policy towards caliphate. The Afghan Govt. first welcome the migrants but later they refused to accept as the influx of the refugees increased beyond control. The poor people who responded to their religious leaders had disposed of their belonging, when they came back they found themselves shelter less. This move also gave much benefit to Hindus who bought the properties of migrating Muslim on low prices.
KHILAFAT SESSION KARACHI.
In July 1921 All India Khilafat conference met in Karachi. Moulana Muhammad Ali Johar presided over the session and delivered his famous Karachi speech. He urged the Muslim soldiers to leave their job and boycott military.
Maplah uprising Cracks in Hinu Muslim Unity:
Moplahs of south India (malabar) were religious and emotional people. Government wanted to keep them out of non-cooperation, therefore, section 144 was imposed in Moplah dominated area. They rose against British. Hindus acted as spies of the government as a consequence moplah also attacked Hindus. Moplah were brutally crushed. The Hindu press expressed the utter satisfaction over the punishment meted out to Moplahs which caused natural resentment among Muslim ranks.
KARACHI TRIAL OF ALI BROTHERS:
Ali Brothers were sentenced for 2 years on treason charges. It caused leadership gap in the movement.
Incident of Chora –Chori.
On Feb, 5-1922 at Chora chori, a village in UP, 22 policemen were burnt alive by the furious mob and all of a sudden, Gandhi called off the movement without consulting any Muslim leader. He was bitterly criticized for his betrayed behaviors because his national volunteers were responsible for this act:
ABOLITION OF KHILAFAT:
The institution of khilafat received a deadly blow under the leadership of Mustafa Kamal Atta Turk who wanted Turkey to make a new start as a modern state.
Thus they deposed khilafa in 1924 and abolished sultanate. Now khalifa Abdul Majeed had temporal powers and was exiled on March 3rd 1924. This was the end of institution of khilafat. Indian Muslims were stunned by this decision.
Gandhi’ role in khilafat movement had evoked widespread controversy among various historians. Some people opine that he was sincere with the khilafat cause while others accused him of causing maximum harm to Muslim solidarity they write, “His aim was to persuade the Muslims to leave Muslim League and succeeded in destroying Muslims political organization.”
The Muslim lawyers boycotted courts, students and teachers deserted schools and colleges. Even the migration was a trap set by Gandhi. In nutshell, Gandhi’s role in the movement is open to question.
JINNAH AND KHILAFAT:
He considered the scheme impracticable. He questioned the wisdom of withstanding children from schools and college.
Results of Khilafat Movement:
Despite its failure the khilafat movement left an over-arching impact on the Indian politics.
- It was due to this movement that the Muslims ultimately succeeded in breaking free from the yoke of slavery. They got over the terror of Raj and considered going to jail for civil disobedience a matter of national pride and honour.
- The movement just destroyed the myth of Muslim loyalty.
- The movement also brought extremists and loyalist on one platform apparently, there was little in common between the Aga Khan and Muhammad Ali; or Syed Amer Ali and Dr. M.A Ansari- all these had identical aim.
- This movement was a training lesson, political consciousness and courage of conviction to the Muslims of India. These years of trouble and turmoil prepared them to launch another movement that later known as Pakistan movement.
- The influence of khilafat movement brought two most active, energetic and indoctrinated sections of the Muslim – the students and the ulemas in Political arena.
- The khilafat movement played an effective role in eliminating un-Islamic trends and concepts from the religion and polities due to its religious and political impact.
- The khilafat movement immensely strengthened the two nation theory, which became the basis of establishment of Pakistan.
- The khilafat movement added much to the economic miseries of Muslims who resigned from their jobs and also the people who with aim of migration sold all their properties at low rates.
- For the first time the Muslims of subcontinent realized the necessity of national education, freedom from governmental control. Jamia millia is the result of khilafat movement.
- The movement effectively demonstrated the religious enthusiasm of Muslims to British.
- The movement exposed the Hindu mentality towards the Muslims.
CAUSES OF FAILURE:
Khilafat movement ended without its prime objectives of safeguarding the institution of caliphate. Fallowing factors can be attributed towards the failure of the movement.
- Discontinuation of Hindu Muslims Unity.
- Moplah incident.
- Chora Chori incident.
- Non cooperation movement was abandoned suddenly.
- Turkey’s abolition of khilafat institution.
- Extremist Hindu movements of Shuddi and Shangtan caused bitterness.
- Communal clashes erupted in the country.
- Detention of Ali Brother lack of leadership.
One of the achievements of the Khilafat movement was that it pulverized the British misconception of their omnipotent and forced them to moderation to a great extent. It broadened the Muslim outlook brought them in contact with other Muslim countries and made them aware of the affinities which bound them to other Muslim people. It also created in them a burning passion for freedom and emancipation from foreign rule and removed from their minds all nation of immutability of Briton Raj.