Belief in the unity or oneness of Allah is known as Tauheed which is the foundation and most important principle of Islamic faith. All other beliefs, command and laws of Islam and firm on this foundation and receive strength from this source.
Tauheed means that there is none, Supreme Lord who is Omnipotent and Omnipresent, to whom all praise and all worship is due as He is the creator, master, owner and sustainer of the Universe. He has no partner or associate, no parent or son and no one shares in his authority or power. He is independent, incomparable and eternal. He is beyond anything which the mind or senses can comprehend or imagine.
Literally, Tauheed means unification. It comes from the Arabic word— WAHADA, which means to unite, unity or consolidate.
Aspects of Tauheed:
Tauheed is the belief that
- Allah is One, without partner in his dominion and in his actions.
- Allah is one, one without similitude in its essence and attributes and
- One without rival in his divinity and in his worship.
The omission of any one of the above mentioned aspects of Tauheed is reformed to as Shirk, i.e., the association of partners with Allah.
Unique in Persons and Worship:
Allah is One. There is no plurality of gods and He alone deserves to be worshipped. He has no partners, associates or helpers. He neither has offspring nor was He born of anyone.
There is no creator but Allah, no possessor except Him and no command except Him. The Quran says,
“Your Guardian Lord is Allah, who created the heavens and the
To Him belongs all dominion……”(35:13)
The Quran forbids worshipping anyone except Allah.
“…..and those besides Him whom they invoke— They are but vain falsehood….”(22:62).
The pagans, however, used to refuse the teachings of their Prophets and set up gods rivals to Allah, worshipping them and seeking their support and help. The Quran says:
“Yet they have taken, besides Him, gods that can create nothing
But are themselves created…… (25:3)”
Unique in Names and Attributes:
This means no other being possesses any of the Divine attributes in perfection. For example, man may attain perfection to a certain degree in the attribute of kindness, but only Allah possesses the perfection of the attribute of kindness.
Allah is incomparable in His attributes. For example, the attributes of hearing and seeing are among human faculties, but when they are attributed to the Divine being, they are without comparison in their perfection.
Unique in Lordship:
Allah alone created the universe and caused all things to exist when there was nothing. He is the only real powers in existence. He sustains and maintains creation. He is the sole Rabb of the universe. No one can challenge His Sovereignty and Authority. He creates what he pleases; He is accountable to no one. Nothing happens in creation except what He allows to happen. The Quran says:
“Allah is the creator of all things.
And He is the Guardian and Disposer of all affairs.” (39:62)
The primary emphasis of the Quran is upon the doctrine of Tauheed. The Quran starts from Surah Fatiha, which says;
“Thee do we worship and Thee aid we seek” (1:5)
The concept of Unity of Allah is summed up in Surah Ikhlas which says:
“Say: He is Allah, the one and only;
Allah, the Eternal, Absolute;
He begetteth not, not He is begotten;
And thee is none like up into Him”.
Universe as proof of Tauheed:
The vast universe with its well organized and well-coordinated system clearly indicates that there is One, Supreme Authority. There is complete harmony and everything is perfectly set in the system. The Quran says:
“If there were, in the heavens and the earth, other God besides Allah, there would have been confusion in both…….”(21:22)
Effects of Tauheed Upon the Life of a Muslim:
- Tauheed frees man from the forces of nature, non-living objects and the human beings, thus leading to his moral and spiritual development and advancement.
- Tauheed produces the highest degree of self-respect and self-esteem in a believer who knows that Allah alone is the possessor of all powers.
- Tauheed inculcates humility and modesty because one realizes that he is weak and helpless before Allah.
- One is ever hopeful of Allah’s mercy and blessing.
- One keeps away from unfair means of achieving wealth or success.
- He is purged of the feelings of jealousy, any and greed and becomes satisfied and contented.
- His life is filled with piety truthfulness and righteousness.
- He acknowledges that whatever he possesses has been given by Allah.
- He never believes in an immoral and irresponsible way because of the sense of accountability.
- He will not give his submission, devotion or allegiance to other deities besides Allah.
- He abstains from sin and evil.
- He follows the right path to win Allah’s favour.
- His good deed leads to the establishment of a balanced human society.