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Agriculture and Forestry

Notes and Material of Optional Subject of Agriculture and Forestry.

Chemical Control of Pests

Chemical Control of Pests: Chemical control of pests in agriculture and horticulture is a method of controlling pests through chemical materials poisonous for pests. It includes use of insecticides that directly kill the insects or attractants and repellents that avoid pest infestation onto the crop. Insecticides: Insecticides are chemical compounds which kill the insects through […]

Factors which Influence Growth of Plants

Factors which Influence Growth of Plants: Synopsis: Introduction Types of factors. Genetic Factors. Environmental factors. Moisture supply. Radiant energy. Atmospheric composition. Toxic atmospheric substances. Soil structure and soil aeration. Soil PH. Biotic factors. Supply of minerals. Growth restricting substances. Comments: Introduction: Two types of factor influence plant growth; genetic and environmental. Genetic Factors: Plant growth […]

Genetics and Crop Improvement

Genetics and Crop Improvement: Genetics: Genetics is the science of heredity and variation which deals with resemblances and differences among individuals related by descent”. Heredity: Heredity is the transfer of traits from parents to offspring’s/progeny. Or Heredity means the similarities progeny shows to its parents and develops the progeny in the parental image. Variation: Deviation […]

Asexual Propagation of Plants

Asexual Propagation Of Plants: Asexual propagation is the multiplication of plant material without passing through the seed cycle. It is accomplished by “mitosis”: the cell division process by which the plants grow. Plants are produced using material from a single parent and as such there is no exchange of genetic material, therefore, daughter plants are […]

Methods of Weed Control

WEED CONTROL: Weed is a plant growing where it is not wanted, especially among crops or garden plants. Harmful Effects of Weeds: Compete with crops for light, water and nutrients. Crowd out the crop plants. Decreases the farm product and its market value. Poisonous to man and animals. Give shelter to harmful insects. Hosts pest […]

Principles of Crop Management

PRINCIPLE OF CROP MANAGEMENT: The basis of crop management is expressed through a simple equation expressed below: Input                            →        Crop                                         →      Output (Minimum)                                                         […]

Methods of Crop Irrigation

Irrigation of Crops: Pakistan has a cultivated area of 22.04 mha out of which 18 mha is irrigated area and the rest relies on rainfall which is quite variable and unexpected. The rainfall is not evenly distributed and Pakistan receives about 60% of its total rainfall in monsoon season alone. Crops require adequate and timely […]

Sexual Propagation of Plants

SEXUAL PROPAGATION OF PLANTS:- Sexual propagation of plants involve the union of male and female sex cells, the formation of seeds and therefore, creation of population of seedlings with new and different genotypes. In sexual reproduction, meiosis cell division takes place. In meiosis, the cells produced are gametes or spores. Gametes unite together to form […]