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Optionals Group VII

Subjects, Syallabi and Material of CSS Optional Group VII

Chromosomal Abnormalities; Causes and Consequences

CHROMOSOMAL ABNORMALITIES: The chromosomal abnormalities are caused by errors in the number or structure of chromosomes. Many children with chromosomal abnormalities have mental and/ or physical birth defects. Some chromosomal abnormalities result in miscarriage and stillbirth. What are chromosomes? Chromosomes are tiny, string-like structures in cells of the body that contain the genes. Humans have […]

Basic Methods in Infant Research

Introduction: In just 3 years, infants change from totally dependent creatures to active children who understand much about their immediate social and physical world. Developmental sciences seek to understand what infants know and feel, when and how they develop these capacities, and the processes of change. Because infants cannot tell us what they know and […]

Existential Therapy

Existential Therapy: Existential therapy is a form of psychological counseling that is rooted in the ideals and philosophies of “Existentialism”. As existentialism is the philosophy of basic human existence, the existential therapist aim to bring the patient to an individual place of acceptance of the way things are, in particular his or her existence. Existentialism […]

The Endocrine System

The Endocrine System The endocrine system consists of glands that secrete chemicals into the blood steam that help control bodily functioning. Hormones: Hormones are the chemical substance released by the endocrine glands. In a way, hormones are like neurotransmitter in the nervous system. They are stored for subsequent release as chemical messengers, and once released […]

Neurotransmitters and their functions

Neurotransmitters: The nervous system relies on chemical couriers “neurotransmitters” to communicate information between neurons. These neurotransmitters are fundamental to behavior, playing a key role in everything from muscle movements to moods and mental health. Acetylcholine (ACH): ACH has been found throughout the nervous system. It is the only transmitter between motor neurons and voluntary muscles. […]

Organization Of The Nervous System

Organization Of The Nervous System The nervous system is divided in two parts: The peripheral nervous system The central nervous system Peripheral Nervous System: “The peripheral nervous system is made up of all those nerves that lie outside the brain and the spinal cord. Nerves are bundles of neuron fibers (axons) that are route together […]

Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development: Introduction: “Cognitive Development refers to transition in youngster patterns of thinking including reasoning, remembering and problem solving”.  Piaget’s Theory is stage theory of development. Piaget proposed that youngsters progress through four stages of cognitive development which are characterized by different thought processes. Piaget regarded his age norms as approximations and […]

Eric Erickson Theory of Psycho-Social Development

Introduction:  Erik Erickson, the famous Psychoanalyst, is credited with developing the theory of psycho-social development which covers the normal development over the entire life span of human beings. Erickson postulated that the development of an individual is the result of his interaction with his social environment. The social environment puts him under specific crisis by […]

Development Irregularities during Pre-natal Period

Developmental Irregularities during Pre-Natal Period Introduction: Causes of Developmental Irregularities Hereditary Factor Mendelian Inheritance Patterns: Dominant Inheritance of Defects: Recessive Incomplete Sex-linked Chromosomal Abnormalities: Numeric Chromosomal Abnormalities Structural Chromosomal Abnormalities Environmental Factor: Maternal Nutrition: Maternal Drug use: Maternal Illness: Prevention of developmental Irregularities: Developmental Irregularities during Pre-Natal Period Introduction: The pre-natal period of development covers […]

Stages and Principles of Growth and Development

Stages of Growth and Development: Outline Introduction: Difference between Growth and Development: Stages of Growth and Development: Infancy →childhood→ Adolescence→ Adulthood→ old age Principles of Development: Principle of continuity Principle of lack of uniformity. Principle of Individual Differences. Principle of uniformity of Pattern. Principle of Integration Principle of interrelation Principle of Interaction Principle of cephalocaudal […]

Kohlberg Theory of Moral Development

Kohlberg Theory of Moral Development: Introduction: Kohlberg’s model is the most influential of a number of competing theories that explained that how youngsters develop their sense of right and wrong. He modified and expanded upon Jean Piaget’s work who theorized that moral development is determined by cognitive development. Kohlberg’s theory is based on moral reasoning […]

Psychoneurotic Disorders

Psychoneurotic Disorders: Psychoneurotic disorders are purely psychological disorder. There is no relevant organic pathology present in these orders of the behaviour and thus may be clearly distinguished from the psycho-physiological disorders which are known as the disorders of the psyche as well as body. Neurotic disorders in a real sense represent the typical ways of […]