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Optionals Group VII

Subjects, Syallabi and Material of CSS Optional Group VII

Freud’s Stages of Psycho-Sexual Development

FREUD’S STAGES OF PSYCHOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT:  Introduction:- Freud (1905) proposed that psychological development in childhood takes places in a series of fixed stages. These are called psychosexual stages because each stage represents the fixation of libido (sexual drives or instincts) on a different area of a body. As a person grows physically, certain areas of their […]

Anxiety Disorder

ANXIETY DISORDERS: Introduction:- Everyone experience anxiety from time to time. It is a natural; and common reaction to many of life’s difficulties. For some people, however, anxiety becomes a chronic problem. These people experience high level of anxiety with disturbing regularity. Anxiety disorders are class of disorders marked by feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety. […]

Psychology of Learning

Learning: Leaving refers to a relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience. This broad definition means that learning is one the most fundamental concepts in all of psychology. Learning includes the acquisition of knowledge and skills, but it also shapes personal habits, such as nail biting; personality traits, such as […]

Psychotic Disorders

PHSYCHOTIC DISORDERS Phychotic disorders or psychoses are more “serious disorders” in comparison with the minor illnesses of neurotic disorder. A psychotic behavior is characterized by a serious form of personality disturbance in which the patient shows periodic or prolonged loss of contact with the reality. Legal and social term “insanity” is frequently used for the […]

Factors Promoting and Resisting Social Change

Social Change: Social change can be defined as “The reorganization of society in terms of time and space” Different people are assigned with different roles and statuses in a society at a given time and space. When variation comes in performing different jobs or same job over time, the phenomenon is known as social change. […]

Social Stratification

Social Stratification. “Social stratification refers to hierarchies of statuses that reflect the unequal distribution of power, prestige and property in a given society”. {Sociology by Hess, Markson Stein} Dimension/Basis of Stratfication: Karl Marx believed that the central feature of Capitalist societies is the division between those who own control the Means of Production (The tools, […]


Definition: Deviance is generally defined as any act that violates a social norm and is disapproved by large numbers of people as a result. Deviance Relativism: But deviance is a relative term. No act is inherently deviance. It is, deviant only when it is socially defined as such, and definition of which acts are deviant […]

Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism

Ethnocentrism: Almost from the time we are born, we are taught that our way of life is good, moral, civilized, or natural as compared to others. The result in ETHNOCENTRISM: the attitude that one’s own culture is superior to that of others. Most human beings spend their entire, lives within the culture in which they […]

Urbanization in Pakistan

Urbanization Defined “It is the process of migrating from rural area the urban area.” Urbanization is the process of shifting the rural people to come and reside in the cities. This is becoming a grave problem these days that people prefer to live in the cities. Trends in Pakistan: The trends of urbanization are high […]

Socialization and its agents

Socialization Defined: According to Horton and Hunt “socialization is the process of learning the social behaviours”. Explanation: Socialization is the process of learning the social behaviours and adopting the personality according to learning. This process starts from the childhood and ends with the life of the man. Every person adopts the characters of his personality […]