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All about CSS Optional Paper of Sociology

Feudalism in Pakistan

Feudalism in Pakistan: Feudalism system in Pakistan is based on land tenure system which refers to the rights, obligation  and  arrangements  related to their ownership use and transfer of land. It means how land is held, ownership is determined and revenue  and fixed. The feudalism is positively correlated to the rigid land tenure system which […]

The Functions of Religion in Society

Functions of Religion: The functions of religion institution are mentioned as under Conception of the Supernaturalism: The major functions of a religious institution is to orientate man in his conception of the supernaturalism. It also reveals something about God. This provides psychological importance to an individual. Optimism and self-respect: Religion inculcates optimism, self-respect confidence among […]

Ibn-i-Khaldun Cyclic theory of Social Change

Ibn-i-Khaldun Cyclic theory of Social Change: Ibn-i-Khaldun propounded that the change in human society follows are clockwise pattern and a circle is completed and repeated after almost 120 years in a given society. He observes that there are fixed, definite, clear and standardised stages of the cycle, each stage having a peculiar economic, social, demographic, […]

Anomie Theory of Crime

Anomie Theory: Anomie is another word for strain — it alludes to the distinction between what a man tries to do and what he can really accomplish. At the point when Robert Merton developed the anomie theory in 1938, he concentrated on the interaction between the accompanying two ideas: ✓ Society imposes expectations or goals […]

Methods of Sociological Research

Sociological Research Methods: Sociologists utilize wide arrays of techniques in order to analyse a vast breadth of social phenomena: from census survey data derived from millions of individuals, to the in-depth analysis of a single agent’s social experiences; from monitoring what is happening on contemporary streets. Sociologist employs scientific methods of social research. Sociology shares […]

Emile Durkheim on Suicide

Emile Durkheim: Emile Durkheim, French sociologist, in 1897 published his study on suicide. It was the first methodological study of suicide. The work is a kind of case study of suicide, unique for its time and first major work on the subject. Types of Suicide: Emile Durkheim categorized three major types of suicides. Egoistic Suicide: […]

Society, Culture and Socialization

Society: “An autonomous population whose members are subject to a common political authority, occupy a common territory, have a common culture, and have a sense of shared identity” A society is the largest group with which most people can identify Members of a society are interdependent Societies are constantly changing and evolving No society exists […]

Factors Promoting and Resisting Social Change

Social Change: Social change can be defined as “The reorganization of society in terms of time and space” Different people are assigned with different roles and statuses in a society at a given time and space. When variation comes in performing different jobs or same job over time, the phenomenon is known as social change. […]

Social Stratification

Social Stratification. “Social stratification refers to hierarchies of statuses that reflect the unequal distribution of power, prestige and property in a given society”. {Sociology by Hess, Markson Stein} Dimension/Basis of Stratfication: Karl Marx believed that the central feature of Capitalist societies is the division between those who own control the Means of Production (The tools, […]


Definition: Deviance is generally defined as any act that violates a social norm and is disapproved by large numbers of people as a result. Deviance Relativism: But deviance is a relative term. No act is inherently deviance. It is, deviant only when it is socially defined as such, and definition of which acts are deviant […]