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Challenges to Privacy and Data Protection in the Digital Age

Challenges to Privacy and Data Protection in the Digital Age: Introduction: The last two decades have witnessed an exponential growth in the field of information technology. Presently around 4 Billion people are using internet with approximately 3.3 billion social media users. These users are placing an increasing amount of personal data on devices and internet […]

What is Police Diary? Uses of Police Diary.

Police Diary: Investigation/case diary is also called the police diary. Every investigation officer maintains the sequence of such diary up to date and enters the proceedings of investigation in the following form. The time of receipt of information The time at which he began and closed the investigation; The places visited by him; The circumstances […]

When Foreign Judgment not Conclusive

When Foreign Judgment Not Conclusive: A foreign judgment shall be conclusive as to any matter thereby directly adjudicated upon between the same parties or between parties under whom they or any of them claim litigating under the same title except.— Where it has not been pronounced by a court of competent jurisdiction; Where it has […]

Family Cases and Role of Judges as Mediators

Family cases and the Role of Judges as Mediators: A family is a basic unit of society. The foundation of our society is based on traditionally strong family system. Around the globe, 21st century witnessed the great awareness campaigns for feminist rights. The awareness campaigns also showed their result in Pakistan where due to protracted […]

Define a Cheque. What are the Essentials of a Valid Cheque

CHEQUE: The term cheque may be defined as a bill of exchange which is drawer upon a banker and always payable on demand. S.6: DEFINITION:                 “A Cheque is a bill of exchange drawn on a specified banker and not expressed to be payable otherwise on demand”. The analysis of this section shows that a […]

Judicial Essay on Natural Justice

Judicial Essay on Natural Justice  Outline Introduction Essentials of Natural Justice The rule of Bias The rule of fair hearing. Conclusion The word justice is incapable being defined accurately. The word justice has different connotation for different jurists. Loosely speaking, justice implies fairness— giving one his due. In a sense that good reaps reward, the […]

Essentials of Valid Marriage in Islamic Law

Conception of Marriage: The central idea in the family law of the Muslims is the institutions of Nikah or marriage. It is through marriage that paternity of children is established and relationship and affinity are traced. Marriage defined: Hedaya defines it as, “it is a contract which has its objects begetting and legalizing of children. […]

Void Marriages in Islamic Law

GROUNDS FOR VOID MARRIAGE:  Prohibitions founded on consanguinity:   The prohibitions founded on consanguinity are the same among the sunni as well as among the shias. No marriage can be contracted (a) with the ascendants (b) with the descendants (e) with relations of the sound rank, such as brothers and sisters and their descendants (d) […]

Contract of Guarantee

Contract of Guarantee: A contract of guarantee is a contract to perform the promise or discharge the liability, of a third person in case of his default. The person who gives the guarantee is called the “Surety”. The person in respect of whose default the guarantee is given is called the principal debtor, and the […]