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Notes and Material of Psychology

Techniques of Psychological Assessment

PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT: A psychological assessment consists of more than just administering and interpreting tests. It is a complex intellectual activity that includes formulating hypotheses about a person, deciding what data are necessary to confirm or disconfirm these hypotheses, gathering the required data, interpreting them, and, finally, drawing conclusions. At each stage in the assessment process, […]

Clinical Judgment and Decision Making

CLINICAL JUDGMENT & DECISION MAKING Every day, psychologists make decisions that affect the lives and well-beings of other. Although, many of these decisions are routine, other are characterized by uncertainty. Clinical information is rarely perfectly reliable; the outcomes of treatment strategies are never perfectly predicable. Understanding how clinicians make decisions in the light of uncertainty […]

Psychological Explanation of Criminal behaviour

CRIME: Crime is the violation of law for which some governing authority can ultimately prescribe a conviction. While crime is an expression of social maladjustment defined by the law differently under different circumstances; it nevertheless has psychological and biological roots which will be discussed below. Biological Risk factor for involvement in Crime: Genetics:- There is […]

Client Centered Therapy

Client Centered Therapy Client Centered Therapy is an insight therapy that emphasis providing supportive emotional climate for clients, who play a major role in determining the pace and direction of therapy. Coral Rogers also called it person centered therapy. Rogers maintained that most personal distress is due to inconsistency or “incongruence” between a person’s self-concept and […]

Chromosomal Abnormalities; Causes and Consequences

CHROMOSOMAL ABNORMALITIES: The chromosomal abnormalities are caused by errors in the number or structure of chromosomes. Many children with chromosomal abnormalities have mental and/ or physical birth defects. Some chromosomal abnormalities result in miscarriage and stillbirth. What are chromosomes? Chromosomes are tiny, string-like structures in cells of the body that contain the genes. Humans have […]

Basic Methods in Infant Research

Introduction: In just 3 years, infants change from totally dependent creatures to active children who understand much about their immediate social and physical world. Developmental sciences seek to understand what infants know and feel, when and how they develop these capacities, and the processes of change. Because infants cannot tell us what they know and […]

Existential Therapy

Existential Therapy: Existential therapy is a form of psychological counseling that is rooted in the ideals and philosophies of “Existentialism”. As existentialism is the philosophy of basic human existence, the existential therapist aim to bring the patient to an individual place of acceptance of the way things are, in particular his or her existence. Existentialism […]

Methods of Measuring Development in Humans

Methods of Measuring Development: Introduction:  Development describes the growth of humans throughout the lifespan, from conception to death. The scientific study of human development seeks to understand and explain how and why people change throughout life. This includes all aspects of human growth, including physical, emotional, intellectual, social, perceptual and personality development. Researchers have employed […]

The Endocrine System

The Endocrine System The endocrine system consists of glands that secrete chemicals into the blood steam that help control bodily functioning. Hormones: Hormones are the chemical substance released by the endocrine glands. In a way, hormones are like neurotransmitter in the nervous system. They are stored for subsequent release as chemical messengers, and once released […]

Neurotransmitters and their functions

Neurotransmitters: The nervous system relies on chemical couriers “neurotransmitters” to communicate information between neurons. These neurotransmitters are fundamental to behavior, playing a key role in everything from muscle movements to moods and mental health. Acetylcholine (ACH): ACH has been found throughout the nervous system. It is the only transmitter between motor neurons and voluntary muscles. […]

Organization Of The Nervous System

Organization Of The Nervous System The nervous system is divided in two parts: The peripheral nervous system The central nervous system Peripheral Nervous System: “The peripheral nervous system is made up of all those nerves that lie outside the brain and the spinal cord. Nerves are bundles of neuron fibers (axons) that are route together […]

Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development: Introduction: “Cognitive Development refers to transition in youngster patterns of thinking including reasoning, remembering and problem solving”.  Piaget’s Theory is stage theory of development. Piaget proposed that youngsters progress through four stages of cognitive development which are characterized by different thought processes. Piaget regarded his age norms as approximations and […]