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CPEC Opportunities and Challenges



  1. Introduction:
  2. What is CPEC?
  3. CPEC and OBOR
  4. Elements of CPEC.
  5. Thesis statement
  6. Important Features of CPEC:
  7. Under CPEC, China is expected to invest $46 billion in Pakistan in the next few years.
  8. Dissection of the investment into direct investment and loans.
  9. The major portion of the investment will go to energy projects, aiming to add 16500 MW energy to the national grid in the next decade.
  10. Infrastructure development like building new roads and motorways, repairing and upgrading highways, re-alignment of KKH, upgrading the railways sector and establishment of new railway routes.
  11. Laying of fiber optic from Rawalpindi to Kashgar in China.
  12. Solar and wind energy projects.
  13. Hydro projects like Dasu Dam and Diamer- Bhasha dam.
  14. Tapping coal reserves in Thar and salt Range.
  15. Up gradation and operational mode of Gwadar seaport.
  16. Construction of Gwadar airport.
  17. Construction of fresh water treatment plants in Gwadar and supply to the city.
  18. Hospital and vocational training institute in Gwadar.
  19. Coal based power plant Gwadar.


For China:

  1. One belt one road initiative of president Xi.
  2. China is a major importer of oil from the Gulf. The distance from the Gulf will come down to 2500 KM from currently 13000 KM. The shipment time will reduce from 45 days to 10 days.
  3. Development of underdeveloped western provinces of China.
  4. CPEC will help Chinese economy which has been experiencing a new normal.
  5. Economic benefits in the form of returns and repatriations.
  6. Similar investments and initiatives with other countries like Indonesia, Bangladesh and with Central Asian countries, making china wield greater influence in the Asia.
  7. Advantages for China’s companies and workforce.

Advantages for Pakistan:

  1. Energy projects will end load shedding, eliminating a major bottleneck for the industrial development.
  2. Economic stability; employment and trade.
  3. Reduction in oil bill but increase in coal import.
  4. Development of the weak and wrecked infrastructure of the country; roads and railway.
  5. Higher GDP growth to cater the needs of high population growth.
  6. Strengthening of strategic partnership with China in the face of increasingly hostile India.


China will have to face fewer challenges. Major burden is on the state of Pakistan.

Security Challenges:

  1. Threat of Baloch insurgents and other terrorists like TTP, Al-Qaeda etc.
  2. Security of Chinese and local personals working on CPEC.
  3. Security of trade caravans.

Political challenges:

  1. Political instability and unrest in the country.
  2. Tug of war between the provinces and the central government.
  3. Indian backed politicians raising voice against the CPEC.
  4. Political interests ahead of CPEC and

Administrative Challenges:-

  1. Bureaucratic hurdles and red-tapism.
  2. Lack of skilled workforce on the projects.
  3. Uneven distribution of the projects among provinces.
  4. Reliance on thermal and coal based projects.
  5. Lack of public private partnership.
  6. Corruption and kickbacks.
  7. Lack of transparency and accountability.

Economic Challenges:

  1. Profit returns and repatriations.
  2. Loan maturation.
  3. Increase in import bill due to coal and LNG based energy projects.
  4. Blow to foreign reserves.
  5. Increase in foreign as well as local debts.
  6. NAPRA and electricity tariff.
  7. Local businesses and Chinese dominance.
  8. Heaving quarantine charges.
  9. Trade imbalance with China.

Strategic Challenges:

  1. Role of India to sabotage CPEC and recent India-Afghanistan romance.

Environmental Challenges:

  1. Converting fertile agricultural lands into roads and highways.
  2. Increased movement of cargo trades brings air pollution.
  3. Northern regions will not remain aloof from pollution affects.
  4. Thermal plants will increase pollution.
  5. Pollution based diseases infestation.
  6. Change in socio-cultural life of the people especially of northern regions.

Measures Taken by Pakistan to Ensure progress on CPEC:

Pakistan needs to work really hard to reap the fruits of CPEC without damaging its own fabric and risking its existence.

  1. Establishment of special security division for the security of Chinese and locals working on CPEC.
  2. Role of planning commission in planning, execution and transparency of the CPEC projects.
  3. Establishment of steering committee comprising of Chief Ministers of the provinces.
  4. Consensus building in provinces about CPEC.
  5. Timely execution of energy projects under the banner of “Early Harvest Projects”.

Way Forward:

  1. Development of consensus among provinces.
  2. Improvement in security situation of the country, especially in Baluchistan.
  3. Addressing administrative issues.
  4. Provision of security to foreigners.
  5. Addressing gray areas of the CPEC.
  6. Ensuring transparency in the projects.
  7. Maintaining trade with China. It shall not affect the local businesses. An environment of fair completion should be provided.
  8. Role be given to the small and medium industries of the country.
  9. The trade deficit and oil bills have to be monitored vigilantly.
  10. Outcomes of the projects should be equally distributed,
  11. Consistency in economic policies.
  12. Environment should be protected at any cost.
  13. Speedy and fair dispute resolutions.




The China Pakistan Economic Corridor is part of the One Road One Belt Vision expounded by president Xi Jinping to establish close land and maritime links between 60 plus countries across Asia and Europe. This is China’s pivot to the west with prosperity and mutual gains as its motivating force rather than the presentation of power. CPEC’s importance for china, and particularly for Pakistan, cannot be overstated. It will revive the defunct Silk Road which used to be the major trade artery between Asia and Europe. It is first and essential phase of the OBOR (One belt one road) enterprise which includes, among other countries, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Central Asia and Russia. It will cement and add vital economic dimensions to the strategic partnership between China and Pakistan.

CPEC would prove a game changer for the development and prosperity of Pakistan if executed properly.

Under the initiative of CPEC, China is expected to invest $ 46:5 billion dollars in Pakistan’s infrastructure and energy resources. The entire project shall be completed in more than a decade with priorities in the field of energy, security and amelioration of rail and road infrastructure for smooth movement of goods from china to the Arabian Sea; Gwadar to be exact.

CPEC is a comprehensive program that entails connecting Gwadar port to China’s north western region of Xinjiang through 2700 Km long highway from Kashgar to Gwadar, railway likes for freight trains, oil and gas pipelines and an optical fiber link as well.

The project aims at transforming regional trade routes, increasing Chinese participation in the region and bridging the region’s infrastructure gap. It is one of the largest and most momentous project for Pakistan and the region. With huge investment of $46 billion, the major chunk (approx. 34 billion $) has been earmarked for energy projects. It aims to add 16,500 MW energy to the national grid in the next decade. Energy sector development will include around 10 coal and LNG fired projects, hydel, solar and wind power plants. These plants would be established and run through public private partnership with local investors pairing with Chinese companies in investment and management.

The $ 12 billion dollar dedicated for development of basic infrastructure will be inter-state credit in the form of soft loans by Chinese companies or credit institutions. For such projects, share of Pakistan and China would be 10% and 90% respectively. The major infrastructure projects include up gradation of deep sea port at Gwadar to make it operational and handle large amount of Cargo shipments, an airport, industrial and specialized economic Zones at Gwadar along with hospitals, training and vocational institutions to develop skillful work force. Construction of freshwater treatment plant and a coal based power plant in Gwadar has got underway due to CPEC.

Under CPEC; road and rail infrastructure is to be developed to handle trade cargo to and from China. A new rail link is to be developed between Gwadar and jacobabad along with up gradation of other important rail routes vital to CPEC.

The road infrastructure has also been given due share with linkage between Gwadar and Kashgar, measuring 2700 Km. The Karachi Highway would be re-aligned at places and a motorway is to be built from Karachi to Lahore under the umbrella of CPEC. The Lahore Orange Line Train is also financed under CPEC.

The China Pakistan Economic Corridor is a landmark project in the annuals of history of Pakistan. It is the largest investment Pakistan has attracted since independence and the largest by China in any other country. CPEC would benefit the whole country if executed properly irrespective of the provinces and areas it passes through. It is also beneficial for China in a way that it will help president Xi to complete his OBOR vision and connect China with other nations of the world through road and maritime links.

China has been experiencing a new normal in its economic growth and in the words of Chinese premier, “the economy has returned to medium to high gear from the high gear. CPEC is to help the Chinese economy through increased trade activities with neighbouring countries and by providing returns and repatriations from its investments.

CPEC will also help China to develop its largely underdeveloped western provinces which have not developed alongside eastern regions in the last three decades of Chinese economic boom. The people in the north western provinces will have better opportunities to trade and manufacturing activities through CPEC.

As the rise of Chinese economy increased, its dependence on foreign fossil oils also ballooned. China imports oil bill worth hundreds of billions each year to cater its needs. A major portion of that oil is imported from gulf region. Through CPEC, the distance of china from Gulf would come down to 2500 KM from 13000 KM and time would be reduced from 45 days to 10 days after the completion of CPEC. Furthermore, Chinese companies and people would be benefit through business and employment generated from the corridor.

However, Pakistan will also reap great benefits once the corridor is completed. As the Chinese economy is already established and stabilized, CPEC would give it edge but not as much as the Pakistan’s economy which may stand on its feet with the help of CPEC.

The energy crisis of Pakistan has jammed the economic development of the country increasing the unemployment and poverty is the last decade . Under CPEC 34 billion $ have been earmarked for setting up new power plants to generate electricity equal to 16000 MW in the next decade. This will help Pakistan ease its energy crisis and run its industries to create jobs, income and exports. It will enable the economy to develop in tandem with the increasing population growth and provide jobs to the youth.

CPEC will bring employment at ports; airport, seaport and dry ports. It will generate managerial and engineering jobs in infrastructure and energy plant development. Thus the growing population, particularly youth will be employed and earn bread and butter for their families.

CPEC will bring revolutionary changes in the weak and wrecked infrastructure of the country; raising its standard to meet international requirements. The roads and rail network would be established to not only link china with Arabian Sea but also other vital routes to which are frequently used and are pertinent to development and prosperity of the county.

Last but not the least; the CPEC will strengthen the strategic partnership between China and Pakistan with its economic element, in the face of increasingly dominating and hostile India. The friendship which is deeper than the seas and sweeter than honey has practically transformed into strategic partnership, reliance on each other and trust ship between two neighbouring countries.

With huge investment of $46 billion and more, Pakistan has an uphill task not just to create a transparent, accountable and efficient mechanism of utilizing and absorbing such a huge investment but also to bring about a revolution in corporate ethics.

Pakistan’s road towards success regarding CPEC would neither be easy nor smooth. At every instance, difficulties and speed breakers would appear and crossing those would be essential to benefit from the project. Some of the major challenges Pakistan would face during and after the completion of CPEC includes security situation, political environment, administrative apathy, strategic plots and environment costs of the project. Overcoming these challenges is crucial for success of the initiative.




First and foremost challenge threatening to derail the CPEC is security situation of the country. Pakistan has faced all forms of terrorism since joining the American led war on terror. The country has paid heavily both in human casualties and economic losses. The security situation has affected the socio-economic fabric of the country dearly. Between Pakistan and successful completion of CPEC, this security situation stands erect with deep roots. Terrorist group like TTP, LeJ, Sipah-e-Sihaba and other outfits would target the personnel’s and materials attached with CPEC.

The major security threat is from Baloch insurgents who from time to time disrupt the project by attacking foreigners, especially Chinese and security personnel’s in Baluchistan. The Baloch insurgent are largely trained in Afghanistan and helped by Indian RAW to carry out attack on Pakistani oil. Thus securing the life of Chinese as well as Pakistani nationals working on CPEC is an uphill task.

The other major security concern is protection of trade caravans to and from China which are easy target for the miscreants. As the trade route which starts from Xinjiang and ends in Gwadar passes from mainly deserted mountainous and unpopulated region of Baluchistan are prone to attack. Therefore, ensuring security of the route for trade is vital for the success of CPEC.

After security the other major issue Pakistan faces is political instability and division which holds the energy and capacity to de-track the project altogether. Pakistan is a country of diverse ethnicities and people. It is rich in languages and races, but this blessing can turn into bane if provincialism is fanned. This political and ethical division can hamper the success of the project.

Since the launch of CPEC almost two years ago, there has been a tug of war between the provinces and the centre. The former accuses the latter of lack of uniformity in distribution of projects among provinces and favouring a single province more than others, raising hue and cry from others.

Under CPEC, agricultural lands and forests would be acquired to change them into roads and highways, changing the natural land form and affecting the biotic life of the eco-system. Cargo traffic on such roads pollutes the adjoining areas, deteriorating the nature further.

Pakistan has taken a number of measures to ensure smooth execution and implementation of CPEC on ground and for its success. The role of planning commission of Pakistan is strengthened to oversee the execution and progress of CPEC with the help of provinces and induction of other stakeholders, including security forces. It is responsibility of planning commission to negotiate and bargain over the projects with China and then brief the cabinet over the progress.

To address the complaints and demands of the provinces, a steering committee on CPEC has been established under Prime Minister with Chief Minister of all provinces as its members along with members. The steering committee is responsible for making decisions regarding project execution. This helps in consensus building in and among provinces and gives the center with an opportunity to address the grievance of any province.

As special security Division has been established for the security of workers, either Chinese or locals engaged with CPEC. Furthermore, new brigades are in pipeline to secure the corridor and provide the cargo vehicles with security and protection while on Pakistani soil. These security measures will surely add to the confidence of traders from both the countries.

To get benefit from CPEC, funding few important energy and infrastructure projects have been inducted in the list of Early Harvest Project that will provide outcomes in the shortest possible time frame and will be completed.

A lot has been done regarding CPEC but it is not enough yet. CPEC requires some immediate and continuous efforts if Pakistan is to get whole benefit from it. Firstly, there must be transparency and meritocracy in awarding contracts, dealings and negotiations and in execution of projects on ground. No province or stakeholder should be devoid of required information. Everything should be transparent. Secondly, the authorities concerned should make endeavours to address the gray areas of CPEC and purge it of unnecessary complications.

The security situation of the country needs a tremendous boost to reap the fruits of CPEC. Peace ensures investment and economic activity. As long as there is no peace, there is no business and prosperity. It is responsibility of the government to maintain law and order in the state attract investments and jobs.

Trade with china should be reviewed and rationalized. The trade deficit has to be narrowed down. Ample chances be given to the local businesses, both small and large to boost local business, industry and job opportunities. Small and medium enterprises can be provided with incentives to compete with the Chinese goods.

As an increase in trade deficit is expected due to increase oil and coal bills which are to run thermal power stations, two things are to be kept in mind. First, thermal fuel supply should be rationalised to efficient power plants and secondly the import of coal and LNG should be discouraged against local exploitation of such resources to avoid pressures on local resources of the country.

Environment is as important as development. It must not be over-shadowed by development. Reliance on fossil fuels, especially coal has to be discouraged in the long run.

There should be consistency in economic policies irrespective of which party governs the state. Frequent alterations and changes in economic policies mar the confidence of investors and businessman. Haphazard fluctuations in policies has to be avoided to give favourable environment to businesses.

To avoid time consuming and hectic litigation, a mechanism be devised on executive side for speedy and fair resolution of disputes.

To conclude, it may be observed that china Pakistan economic corridor is a god gifted opportunity for Pakistan to resurrect its economy and uplift itself from the ashes to become one of the greatest nations of the world on the basis of its potential, material resources and human capital. However, the state must be be vigilant in tackling problems associated with the project. It must make sure that our political differences and social dimensions, our administrative impediments and greed should not affect this golden opportunity.

  1. Zahid zia says

    Very helpul knowledge and easy words

  2. kifayat ullah says

    please justify that these are outline OR complete essay

  3. MUJIB KIANI says

    CPEC is blessing ……but 30% profitable for Pakistani unable nation who cannot do anything just dependent on other politican judicary and Army have control

  4. Muzammil Hussain Qureshi says

    China Pakistan economic corridor isn’t complete without Gilgit Baltistan. I have came through many essays but none of the writer has mentioned the importance GB in this vary route . Pakistan must declare GB the fifth province , and must transfer all the powers to GB in order to tackle the upcoming ramifications. I guess this system won’t be succeed without the due share of GB there.

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