Factors Leading To The Creation Of Pakistan:
There were numerous factors that led to the creation of Pakistan. Some of these are discussed below.
In the subcontinent, the Hindus and the Muslims had been living together for many centuries, peacefully, but after 1857 the Muslims were treated very badly by the Hindus and British. The religious differences between the two nations came to the fore and were cause of constant tension between the followers of both religions. Hindus did not allow Muslims to practice their faith independently. Hence, the Muslims were convinced that they could not live with the Hindus after the British withdrawal from India and demanded a separate homeland where they could live according to the tenets of Islam.
Urdu Hindi in the controversy:
Though Urdu was spoken, written and understood throughout India, yet the Hindus did not like to adopt it as the national language, because it was written in Arabic script. They wanted to adopt Hindi written in Devanagri script. This language controversy started in 1867 at Banaras. After the Hindi-Urdu controversy Sir Syed was convinced that both Hindus and Muslims are two separate nations. Sir Syed supported the cause of Urdu, but unfortunately, in 1900, Hindi was adopted as the national language. This created a cultural gulf between the two communities.
Hindus were more politically advanced and greater in number than Muslims. They were quick to politically organize under the banner of the Indian National Congress with the cooperation of the British. Hindus were single largest community of India. All high post and ministries were in their hands. Muslims feared that in a democratic system based on adult franchise Hindus would perpetually dominate them because of their numeric supremacy. To avoid this political subjugation, Muslims strived for the creation of a separate homeland in areas where they were in majority.
Partition of Bengal:
The partition of Bengal took place in 1905. Lord Curzon divided the province of Bengal on administrative grounds. The partition incidentally favoured the Muslims as they became majority nation in newly created province of East Bengal. This created a strong resentment in Hindus who started Anti-Muslim movements. This convinced the Muslims that Hindus cannot see prosperity of Muslims. Muslims aligned with the British to counter the influence of Hindus. However, when the partition of Bengal was finally annulled by British in 1911 it came as a shock to Muslims who were convinced that Hindu Muslim unity would no longer be possible and appeasing British would not serve their political interests.
Creation of Muslim League:
Muslim League was created in 1906 at Dhaka. Initially the objectives of the League were to remove the misunderstandings between British and Muslims. Quaid-e-Azam joined the League in 1913. After partition of Bengal Muslim League changed its objectives and started to further the political interests of Muslims. In 1940 Muslim League passed a historic resolution demanding the creation of Pakistan. The political struggle of Muslim League was the most apparent factor that led to the creation of Pakistan.
Two Nation Theory:
Muslims were convinced that Hindus and Muslims are not only two distinct groups but rather two different nations. Sir Syed used the term nations for the Muslims after the Hindi-Urdu controversy. The idea of two nation theory was strongly opposed by Hindus who affirmed that India is a cow mother which cannot be partitioned. However, Allama Iqbal clearly elaborated the idea of two nations through his writings while Quaid-e-Azam led the practical political struggle for the creation of separate Muslim homeland on the ideology of two Nation Theory.
The Simla Deputation and Separate Electorates:
In October 1906 a delegations of 35 Muslim leaders under the leadership of Sir Agha Khan met with Lord Minto at Simla and presented a Muslim lists of demands. Among other demands, there was a demand of separate electorate. The Muslim request for separate electorate was accepted by the British government and it was given legal recognition in the Government of India Act 1909. The separate electorate was the catalyst of Muslim success in the general elections of 1945/46.
In 1928, Nehru report was published containing recommendations for the future constitution of India. The Nehru report was a lopsided report as it ignored all the Muslim demands for constitutional framework. This increased the already widened gulf between the two nations and convinced Muslims of Indian prejudice towards them.
Fourteen points of Quaid-e-Azam:
In response to Nehru report, Quaid-e-Azam presented his own formula of constitutional framework. These fourteen points became the benchmark of Muslim politics and ultimately paved a way for the separate homeland for Muslims.
In 1930, Allama Iqbal, in a historic address at Allahabad presented his own constitutional formula for the division of India. He stated that “it is my wish that Frontier province, the Punjab, the Sind, and the Baluchistan be combined to form another state. The setting of a North West Muslim state is the destiny of at least the Muslims of West region”.
In 1937, Congress formed government in eight out of eleven provinces of India. These Congress governments established Hindu rule in their provinces. They tried to annihilate Muslim cultural and religious identity. Band-e-Matam, which was full of anti-Muslim feelings, was adopted as the national anthem of India. The Congress Ministries were ended on Oct 1939 and on the appeal of Quaid-e-Azam, Muslims of India observed “Day of Deliverance” and thanksgiving as a mark of relief that the Congress regime has at last ceased to function.
The All India Muslim League in its 34th session at Lahore adopted a historic Lahore resolution calling for the creation of separate homeland for Muslims of India. Later on, the Lahore Resolution was amended and named Pakistan resolution. The demand of Pakistan was formally made for the first time in the 1940 resolution.
Success of General Elections 1945/46:
General elections were held in the winter of 1945/46 to elect representatives to the federal as well as provincial imperial legislative councils. Muslim League emerged as the largest single party of Muslims as it won by overwhelming majority on Muslim seats. This confirmed the League status as the sole representative of Muslims of India. After the 1945/46 elections, British and Congress were forced to accept Muslim League as the sole representative of Muslims of India and Quaid-e-Azam as the leader of all Indian Muslims. Thus, any deliberation of future constitutional set-up of India would not be possible without involving Muslim League and Quaid-e-Azam.
3rd June Plan:
On 3rd June 1947, the British government formally announced the partition of India into two separate countries of India and Pakistan.
Creation of Pakistan:
Pakistan emerged as the dream independent state of Muslims of India on 14th August 1947. Quaid-e-Azam became its first Governor General while Liaquat Ali Khan assumed the office of Prime Minister of Pakistan.