Geography of Pakistan:
Geography of Pakistan:
Situated in South Asia between the Himalayan Mountains and the Arabian Sea, Pakistan can be divided into three noteworthy geographic areas: the Indus River plain, the northern highlands, and the Baluchistan Plateau. Seismic activity is high in the areas of Pakistan as it lies in at the outskirt of three tectonic plates: The Arabian, Indian, and Eurasian. The Arabian Plate converges with the Eurasian Plate at the coastline in southeastern Pakistan. On Pakistan’s eastern and northeastern border the Eurasian Plate collides with the Indian Plate.
The northern areas of Pakistan are home to most rugged and imposing mountains on the planet. The Himalayas extend from upper east India toward the upper east corner of Pakistan, where they converge into the Karakoram and Pamirs mountain ranges. West of the Pamirs are the statures and soak valleys of the Hindu Kush.
In the northern mountains, for all intents and purposes all mountains are higher than 8,000 ft (2,438 m) above sea level. More than fifty mountains are over 22,000 ft. (6,705 m). The summits of K2 (Mount Godwin Austen) in the Karakoram Range, the world’s second highest mountain (28,251 ft/8,611 m), and Nanga Parbat (26,660 ft/8,126 m) in the Himalayan Range, have been regularly posing fatal difficulties to climbing expeditions. Huge glaciers sprawl over this zone, including Baltoro and Pasu, each more than 31 mi (50 km) long.
The Safed Koh Range south of the northern countries and west of the Indus River plain achieves 15,620 ft (4,761 m) in its expansion to the Afghanistan borders. This parched scrubland incorporates the key Khyber Pass, which connects the Peshawar Valley to Afghanistan. South of the Safed Koh and bunched close to the outskirt are the mountains of Waziristan. Past them, the Toba Kakar range of around 9,000 ft (2,743 m) normal peak height stretches out from northern Baluchistan to the Khojak Pass. The Ras Koh Range west of the city of Quetta, and the Chagai Hills stretching out further west to the Pakistan-Iran-Afghanistan tri-point, finish the western highlands.
The Margalla Hills, 2,000 to 3,000 ft (610 to 914 m) high are foothills of the northern mountains, sitting above Islamabad, the capital. The Swat and Chitral Hills in the northwest have hills of 5,000 to 6,000 ft. (1,524 to 1,829 m).
The Central Brahui Range stretches out for 175 mi (282 km) south from Quetta and afterward partitions into the Kirthar Range that broadens southeast, and the Makran Range that scopes toward the west to the extent the Iranian outskirt. Southeast from Quetta, the Bugti Hills converge into the Sulaiman Range, isolating the nation’s east and west, with summits of 6,000 to 7,000 ft (1,828 to 2,133 m). The Salt Range (containing coal and salt mines) ascends between the Pothohar Plateau and the ripe, inundated fields of the upper Indus Valley. This generally east-west range has a few hills of almost 5,000 ft (1,524 m), however most don’t surpass 2,500 ft (762 m).
The Baluchistan Plateau, at a height of 3,000 to 4,000 ft (914 to 1,219 m), is characterized and encased by the western mountain ranges along the Afghan outskirt and by those broadening southwards from Quetta. The level is a bone-dry tableland of roughly 135,000 sq mi (350,945 sq km) with inside waste and dry lake beds. Vast petroleum gas reserves lie underneath it. The Pothohar Plateau at the foot of the mountains south of Islamabad is a dry, dissolved territory where the vast majority of Pakistan’s oil is found. Nearby Indian-controlled Kashmir, the Deosai Plateau is a 1,337 sq mi (3,464 sq km) upland National Park that is a noteworthy bear habitat.
Northern Pakistan has many thin, contorting canyons, especially in Hunza. The Indus River races through the precarious Attock Gorge close to the Khyber Pass.
Inland waterway Lakes:
In Pakistan’s southeast is Manchhar Lake. It was at one time a substantial assortment of new water (around 100 sq mi/259 sq km) and a noteworthy habitat for birds and fish; however contamination and water redirection have contracted the lake drastically and made its waters progressively saline. Different lakes in the lower Indus district face elimination, including Keenjhar Lake and Hamal lake. keenjhar Lake, Haleji Lake, and Drigh Lake are natural life sanctuaries. Further north the Khabbaki, Uchali and Jahlar Lakes complex is a Wildlife Sanctuary, which is a wintering territory for various fledgling species. The far northern bowl known as Snow Lake is an enormous snow bed containing the Sim Gang ice sheet and a solidified chilly lake with ice more than 9 mi (15 km) thick.
The Indus River is a water system life saver for a significant part of the nation. The Indus ascends in the Tibetan Himalayas. Subsequent to intersection the Indian controlled Jammu and Kashmir, it enters Pakistan and flows southwest for 1,000 mi (1,609 km) to the Arabian Sea. At Attock, the Indus gets the waters of the Kabul River from the west. In the wake of being joined by the Gumal River, the Indus proceeds with south to Mithanhot, where it is joined by its real tributary, the Panjnad. The short Panjnad River, around 75 mi (121 km) long, is really the consolidated contribution of the “five rivers of the Punjab”: the Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, and Sutlej.
The important stream of Baluchistan is the Zhob, running along the southern inclines of the Toba Kakar Range and north into the Gumal River. In southern Baluchistan a few minor waterways stream into the Arabian Sea; these incorporate the Dasht, Mashkai, Nal, and Porali. Pakistan has two noteworthy stream dams. In northern Punjab, close Kashmir, the Mangla Dam sits on the Jhelum river. The second is the Tarbela Dam on the Indus close Taxila. Dams on the Indus River for hydropower or agrarian water preoccupation have been greatly controversial. According to latest estimates of IRSA, Pakistan waste $22 billion of water every year due to non availability of storage reservoirs.
Pakistan has sixteen zones assigned as Wetlands of International Importance under the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. Most are in the southern portion of the nation, including the Indus Dolphin Reserve, which holds the last 500 of the blind dolphin species; the Jiwani Coastal Wetland, a mangrove woodland belt which extends to Iran; and the Miani Hor, a shallow sound with mud pads and mangrove timberlands. Oil drilling, pollution and commercial fishing pose dangers to these southern wetlands. In different zones, Ramsar sites incorporate the Thanedar Wala, a floodplain on the Kurram River in the northwest, and the Taunsa and Chashma Barrages, stores in Punjab that are significant flying birds habitats.
The Coast and Islands:
The coastline of Pakistan meets the Arabian Sea of the northern Indian Ocean and is 1046 Km long. The focal drift is indented by Sonmiani Bay. The drift has couple of settlements, aside from Pakistan’s biggest city, the port of Karachi. The city’s shorelines are seriously dirtied by oil slicks, sewage, and industrial harmful waste, which empties specifically into the sea. Toward the southeast of Karachi, the Indus River delta is roughly 130 mi (210 km) wide. Pakistan’s just major seaward island is Astola (Haft Talar), around 15 mi (25 km) south of Baluchistan in the Arabian Sea, with a territory of 19 sq mi (50 sq km). Astola is a turtle settling zone and a bird and reptile living space.
Climate and Vegetation:
Pakistan is in the mild zone and differs extraordinarily in climate conditions, from the muggy drift, to the dry, hot abandon inside, to the frosty mountains in the north. Four seasons are experienced: winter in December-February; a hot, dry spring in March-May; southwest Monsoon in June-September; and the northeast monsoon in October-November. In the north and west, the monsoon season happens amid the winter. In the north the capital, Islamabad, has normal temperatures going from a low of 35F (2C) in January to a high of 104F (40C) in June. The southern port of Karachi has normal temperatures shifting from a low of 55F (13C) in winter to a high of 93F (34C) in summer.
Arid conditions prevail in the majority of Pakistan. Punjab has had real changes in monsoon rainfall in late decades, with dry seasons in a few years and surges in others. On Pakistan’s plains the normal yearly rainfall is a meagre 5 in (13 cm) while in the highlands it is 35 in (89 cm). Hailstorms are normal, and snow falls in the north in winter. The grand piles of the north are for all time shrouded in snow and ice.
Indus River Plain:
The upper Indus River plain, in Punjab, differs from around 500 to 1,000 ft (152 to 304 m) in rise and comprises of rich alluvium saved by the streams. The lower Indus Plain, comparing to by and large the area of Sind, is lower in altitude. On the Indus plain, meadows called “doabs” provide grazing on the portions of land between rivers.
Pakistan’s Thal Desert is south of the Salt Range, between the Indus and Jhelum waterways. The Thar Desert (Cholistan Desert) lies south of the Sutlej River along the Pakistan-India outskirt. Both are augmentations of India’s Thar Desert. The Baluchistan Plateau is to a great extent an abandon region with deserts and dust storms. There is additionally a dry zone in the northern Chilas-Gilgit territory, which is in the Himalayan rain shadow. Notwithstanding existing deserts, the natural change called desertification is happening across Pakistan, with more than one third of the nation is considered in danger. Deforestation, depletion of soil, and water deficiencies are causing desertification as vegetation is cut and stripped.
Coniferous and deciduous timberlands, scour woods, mangrove backwoods, and tree estates develop in Pakistan. Pakistan forest cover is less than 4%, much below the recommended level. Rapid deforestation is aggravating environmental issues as well as soil erosion. Changa Manga near Lahore is one of the biggest artificial forest of the world. Recently KPK government has planted over one billion trees in the province.
Pakistan has many power and energy resources. Covered underneath the Baluchistan Plateau lie tremendous petroleum gas reserves. Oil repositories have been found in the Pothohar Plateau, however it is evaluated that not even 2 percent of the oil holds in the nation has been found. Because of the numerous rivers and a lot of sunlight in Pakistan, hydropower and solar energy are progressively being tapped. Furthermore, huge amount of coal reserves are found in Pakistan, though its quality is generally low. The nation is additionally home to different mineral assets, including iron, copper, limestone, salt, antimony, bauxite, gypsum, and lignite. Despite the fact that for the most part dry, hot, 25 percent of the land is arable and wheat, cotton, sugarcane, rice, and corn are developed effectively. The most noticeably negative issue is the increasing lack of water because of salination, contamination, and non construction of new dams.