Historical Perspective of Ideology of Pakistan:
The advent of Islam in the sub-continent:
Arab traders under second caliph Umar came to Indian soil for trade but also preached teaching of Islam and impressed the local people.
“The Pakistan came into existence the day the first Indian national embraced Islam”.
Sindh-The Bab-ul-Islam:-(712 A.D)
Raja Dahir – The Hindu ruler of Sindh plundered the ship full of precious thing and Muslim women going to Syria Hajjaj bin yousaf, is the governor of Syria under Umayyad Caliphate. Hajjaj demanded the booty back but Raja Dahir refused which infuriated Hajjaj who send expeditious against Dahir but failed until he sent his nephew and son-in-law Muhammad bin Qasim who defeated Raja Dahir and conquered area up to Multan. He associated the local people in government affairs and treated fairly with full religious freedom. The people got impressed and started embracing Islam as the new code of life and abandoned Hindu religion based on caste system. So Muhammad Bin Qasim established the first Muslim Empire subcontinent and made Sindh Dar-ul-Islam
Spread of Islam in other parts of India:
The second phase of Muslim expansion began with the establishment of Turkish Muslim dynasty in Ghazni who used Northwestern routes to invade subcontinent. Mahmud of Ghazni carried out nearly 17 expeditions during 1000 to 1026 AD and was bestowed with proud title of Idol breaker. Under Muhammad Ghori the Muslim power spread to all parts of India including Bengal and Bihar. After Ghori, Delhi Sultanate established till Babur laid Mughal dynasty in Islam. Islam spread through saints and scholars like Sheikh Ismail, Ali Makhdum Hajveri of Ghazni, Bahauddin Zakariya ,Farid-ud-din Shakar, Nazimuddin Aulia, Mujaddid Alif Sani, Shah Waliullah, Moin-ud-din Chishti and many other mystics and religious leader who devoted their life for the spread of Islam in the subcontinent.
The Impact of Islam:-
- Hindu religion – believed in multiplicity God and based on caste system.
- Islam – believe in oneness of God and based on piety instead of caste, colour and creed.
- In 14th century Islam had in penetrated whole of India and changed Indian cultural, social, and religious conditions.
- Islam new social system!
- Changed the caste dominated Hindu society and stressed on solidarity and homogeneity.
- Islam was a blessing for lower and subordinate Classes of India which had been exploited by privileged groups for centuries.
- Respectable way of life.
- People rejected outdated and absurd Hindu customs.
- Development of Urdu with combination of Sanskrit, Arabic,Turkish and Hindi etc.
- Islam believed in Oneness of God. No privilege on the basis of caste, creed and colour.
- Hinduism believed in multiplicity of God and hegemony of privileged class.
- Hindus reorganized their philosophies the light of Islam. Their temples influenced by Islamic Architecture.
- They began preaching of love, brotherhood and equality.
- Guru Nanak, Ramananda and other prominent spiritual leaders got inspiration from Islam.
- Hinduism despite its best effort could not check the rapid expansion of Islam in India.
- Islam was a magnetic force which attracted followers.
- Hindu reformers give a serious pondering or eliminating unethical social principles of Hinduism in order to make it more acceptable and tolerable to people to prevent their inclination towards glorious Islam.
- Bhakti love and brotherhood.
- Launched in 14th century to make Muslim expansion in check.
- Guru Nanak, Ramananda, Ramanuja, Bhagat Kabir, Dadu etc.
- Main leaders rejected caste system, negated idol worshipping, preached love, Brotherhood, tolerance and respect for each other.
- Preached simplicity and unity.
- Failed to achieve the objective of the distortion of Islam.
- Akbar came to power in 1566. He was Pro Hindu. Favoured Hindus to perpetuate his reign. Elevated them to high ranks and to court.
- Promulgated his new religion “Din-e-Ilahi” in 1582. Main objective of the new religion was to please Hindus and distortion of Islam
- Sanctioned worship of sun,fire, and artificial lights.
- Cow slaughter and Azan prohibited.
- No Child to be named Muhammad.
- Patronized Hindu cause and literature
- Threat to Muslim political hegemonic in the Indian society.
- Akbar religion bitterly failed. Mujadid Alif Sani made tremendous efforts
Imam Rabbani Hazrat mujaddid alif Sani:
- (Sheikh Ahmed Sirhindi)
- Born on June 26th 1564 at Sirhindi
- Memorize Holy Quran and studied hadith.
- Got education from notable religious Scholars of the time.
- Received spiritual training from “Baqi Billah”.
- Received khilafat from his father in the Chishtiya and Soharwardi spiritual orders.
- A great Muslim and saint who challenged the might of Akbar to re-establish the glory of Islam and denounced his Din-e-Elahi.
Social condition of India:
- Society was ridden with un-Islamic practices.
- Development of magical and supernatural power in Sufism, alien to Islam. Sufis of those days openly denied the authenticity of Sharia.
- Ulema and theologians ceased to refer Quran and hadith in their commentaries.
- The religious spirit diminished and gave rise to juristic view of Islam.
- Akbar promoted and patronized Hinduism.
- Split of the Muslim society into several factories and promoted heretic attitudes and practices.
- Sheikh Ahmed effort to purge Muslim Society of Atheist Volumes:-
- He took the task of reforming Islam and Muslim society in subcontinent.
- Sent his disciples to preach Islam in every corner of subcontinent
- Openly denounced atheism society
- Worked hard to restore true trading of Islam and expose the fallacy of Din-e-Elahi.
- Urged different sects/factions of Muslims to give up heretic customs and practices and encourage them to have Unity in their ranks and files.
- Made the leading nobles his discipline through whom he influenced to bring about a change in the life of the court.
- Solemn undertaking from the Muslim that they would not obey any order repugnant to Islam.
- Contributed a great deal towards the popularity of Islam in the subcontinent.
- Maktubat-e-Imam Rabbani:-
- Letters of persuasion of Sheikh Ahmad to leading nobels of the royal court.
- Jehangir imprisoned Sheikh Ahmed because he refused to perform prostration before Jahangir. He was imprisoned for 2 years and then released with honour and elevated to Jahangir Court where he served for three years and went back to his birth place where he died on 10th December 1624.
- Sheikh Ahmed and two Nation concepts:-
- Sheikh Ahmed was of the view that if the Muslim were not alerted against the plot of Hindus they would be doomed forever as a nation. He laboured hard to keep alive the nation and religious identity of the Muslim. He was a staunch advocate of the separateness of the Muslims and desired to maintain the distinctive image of the Muslim nationalism.
Wahdat-ul-Wujud and Wahdatul Shuhud:
- This concept came from some sufis of Akbar time. According to them there was no living difference between the man and his creator God and both individual and god are not separate from each other. They believed that every particle of the universe represents the presence of God, therefore, the worship of God creature amounted to the worship of God. Sheikh Ahmed openly negated this philosophy and presented the concept of Wahdat-ul-Shahud.
- Wahdat-ul-Shahud- creator and creatures are two different and separate things.
- The influence of Sheikh Ahmed’s effort:-
Incredible impact on the history of Muslim India “Spiritual guardian the Muslim of India”
He drew a distinction between Islam and Atheism. Jehangir took measures for propagation Islamic principles under Sheikh Ahmed influence and advice. Most powerful religious personality in the history the of India.
Hazrat Shah Waliullah Muhaddis Dehlvi:
- Born on Feb 21st,1703 in Delhi.
- Real name “Qutub Uddin” later known as “Waliullah” for his piousness and spirituality.
- Memorized Quran received education of Hadith, philosophy, medicines, logic and metaphysics from his father.
- Shah Waliullah excelled in every discipline of the Islamic learning.
- Incapable successors of Aurangzeb indulged into luxurious Iife and could not withhold the Supremacy of Muslim rule. With the weakness of Muslim empire, Islam faced serious problem.
- Un-Islamic trends and practices were flourishing. Life, honour and property were not safe. Tussle between the Shia and Sunni sects. Social, religious and political instability. The prevailing situation were ripe for a reformer to come which could retract the condition.
Shah waliullah’s movement:
- Prepared group of student and entrusted them the job of imparting the knowledge to common people in all corners of the subcontinent.
- Urged the Muslims to abandon un-Islamic treads and luxuries of life.
- Advocate Quranic education, simplicity in life.
- Adopted a balance approach and understanding towards religious matter so that people can easily grasp it.
- Advanced national solidarity and harmony by removing misunderstanding between Shia and Sunni.
- Impressed rulers to enforce Islamic laws.
- Educated soldiers and traders.
- Informed people about the sins of accumulation of unnecessary wealth.
- Regarded as the founder of “modern Muslim India”.
- Produced luminaries like Sir Syed Ahmed Khan.
- Rendered meritorious services to Islam
- Provided leadership to Muslim in the field of politics. The rise of Marathas and Sikhs had posed serious problem to the Muslim rulers for which Shah Waliullah requested assistance for Muslim chieftain but they could not break the might of Marathas and Sikhs in Punjab. Then Shah Waliullah looked towards Shah Abdali who inflicted a crushing defeat on the Marathas at the third battle of Panipat in 1761. The victory of Panipat paved way for revival of Islam in India.
- Works of Shah waliullah:-
- Wrote more than fifty books.
- Translated Quran in Persian language so that an average person could easily understand the teaching of Quran.
- Detail of the reasons of social and religious decay of the Muslim who wrote “Izalat-al-Akhija”and “Khilafat-al-khulfa” to remove misunderstanding between Shia and Sunni. His Madrasah and other institution imparted education in the light of his work.
- His elder son continued teaching after his death.
Syed Ahmed Shaheed Barelvi:-
- “Purification of Muslim society and destruction of British power in India were the aims of Sayyid Ahmed Shaheed
- Armed struggle and confrontation against Sikhs and British.
- Born on 29th November 1786.
- Learnt military discipline and strategy.
- Discipline of Shah Abdul Aziz (Shah Waliullah’s son).
- Wrote Sirat-e-Mustaqim wonderful summary of the philosophies, doctrines and reforms of Shah Waliullah.
- Desired to see the restoration by the Supremacy of Islam in India.
- Punjab was ruled by Sikhs ruler Ranjit Singh. Azan was forbidden, Mosque, Shrines into temples and stables. Religious practices of the Muslim were interrupted frequently. Sheikh Ahmed decided to launch Jihad against Sikhs regimes in Punjab and N.W.F.P.
- He invited the people to join him in the Jihad against Sikh domination.
- He Send a message to Sikh ruler either to embrace Islam or get ready for war.
- Sikhs leaders scornfully refused the offer, faced Muslim army at Akora under General Bahadur Singh. Inflicted heavy loss on Sikhs .Then second war at Hazro which too was a great success. Enforced Sharia in occupied areas. The Muslim Army finally defeated by large Army of Sikh at Balakot where Sayyid Sahib with his many followers laid their life for the sake of Islam. The Jihad movement diminished after the martyrdom of Syed Ahmed Shaheed Barelvi.
- Haji Shariah Ullah laid foundation of Faraizi movement impressed by the doctrines of Sheikh Mohammed Abdul Wahab of Saudi Arabia.
- Revive Islam in Bengal. Reaction to anti-Muslim policy of the British.
- Emphasized on performing religious ritual Namaz, fast etc
- Improve the deplorable condition of Muslims crushed by Hindu and Sikh zamindars and East India company.
- Disliked expression of Pir, Murid. Wanted to replace it with Ustad and Shagird.
- He required from his followers “Tauba”as a manifestation of repentance for all past sins and a pledge to lead a righteous and God fearing life in future.
- He won deep loyalty and confidence of the people.
- Faraizi Movement infused spirit among the suppressed Muslim who got together for the protection of their rights.
- Invited opposition of Hindu Zamindar who created hurdles and he had to move to his birthplace for him where he preached Islam till his death in 1840.
- Awakened the Muslim from their slumber.
- Son of Haji Shariat Ullah.
- Assumed the leadership of Faraizi movement after the death of his father. Oppose the levying of taxes by landlord on poor peasants. Established his own estate where he use to administer Justice by setting disciplines and punishing the wrong-doer.
- Cultivated a great deal of political awareness among the Muslims of Bengal and particularly among Muslim peasantry who put formidable resistance against the Hindu landlord and British rulers.
- Mir Nasir Ali, leader of peasantry of Bengal worked for the independence and renaissance of the Muslim of Bengal. Stood firmly against Hindu customs and practices.
- Landlords levying beard tax because Wahabis did not shave according to their school of thought.
- Titu Mir was killed in a clash with British forces