Principles of Crop Management


The basis of crop management is expressed through a simple equation expressed below:

Input                            →        Crop                                         →      Output

(Minimum)                                                                                       (Maximum)

However, in order to obtain maximum yield on minimum effort following cardinal principles must be followed:

Proper Land Preparation:

Timely preparation of land and according to the requirement of the crop. For example, wheat does not require deep preparation but cotton and maize do.

Use of Good Quality Seed:

Seed of uniform size and shape, fertilizer responsive, and treated before sowing, and used in adequate density. Seed rate depends on time of sowing, method of sowing, size of seed, health of soil etc.

Timely sowing:

Timely sowing adequate maximum conditions output: untimely sowing reduces yield. For example, 15kg/acre reduction of yield of wheat in 15 days.

Adequate plant Density:

  • Too low → low yield, nutrients wasted. Too high→ competition, nutrients deplete.

Correct manuring:

  • Balanced fertilization: Macro-nutrients (NPK) and Micronutrients (Ca,Mg, etc). Applied when need, otherwise harmful and wastage.
  • Site specific → Arid (NH4 No3 suitable, dissolves in small amount of water). Irrigated → (Urea. Require Plentiful of water. Volatizes in drought or scanty of H20.)


It depends upon type of soil; type of crop; rainfall and temperature. Applied when needed, otherwise harmful and wastage.

Control of Insects, Pests, & Weeds:

Seed treated with fungicide before sowing to avoid soil and seed-borne diseases.

Weed control through Mechanical or Chemical ways.

Insects and pests → Mechanical, Biological and Chemical.

Replenishment of Organic Matter:

Adequate amount of organic matter present in soil stimulates bacterial activity, improves soil structure and texture, improves soil’s water holding capacity, improves aeration of soil and supplies plant with nutrients.

Management of Saline Soils:

Reclamation of Saline soils. Saline agriculture (salivity resistant crops).

Post-Harvest Technology:

Delay in harvesting → Quality and Quantity of product is affected.

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